UTILITIES - Municipal and Industrial:


Utilities can be municipal--- water, storm sewer, sanitary sewer, electricity, natural gas, and communication.

Industrial facilities have their own private utility systems, which can be as large as the municipality they reside in.   Utilities for a plant may include all those mentioned, plus a boiler house, steam and condensate, compressed air, process sewer, effluent treatment, and clean air systems.


Both industrial and municipality utilities must comply with their own set of regulations.  The boiler may be fired by gas, coal, wood, recycled material, or a chemical as in a pulp mill recovery boiler. Plants often generate some of their own electrical power, and have their own phone and computer communication system. 

Causey’s extensive knowledge and experience in utilities is available now in a person trained in Forensic Engineering work to support your case.

The pictures below represent some of the specific types of work and processes in this industry.

Utilities - Power:

Gas, steam and water turbines are used to drive electrical generators.  Recalling how energy cannot be created nor destroyed, these are three examples of converting one energy to another --- chemical, heat, or potential energy to electrical energy.



Electrical energy is so transportable, can be bought and sold within the grid, and can be used in so many ways.





Wind turbines are gaining traction. 


Utilities - Natural Gas:

Natural gas is transported great distances at high pressure so the pipes can be economically small.  Here the gas pressure is reduced for distribution to the customers.




Utilities - Potable Water:

Developed countries come to take pure water for granted.  But this silent golf ball water tower is part of a vibrant Municipal Utility District.






Utilities - Effluent Treatment:

In the background are the stacks of a power plant.  In the foreground is an effluent, or waste water treatment plant.  The cleaned water might be returned to a stream, or irrigate a golf course.





This is a basic effluent treatment plant, with digestion, filtration, dewatering and chlorination facilities.




The digester breaks down the effluent for processing.






The belt press separates out water so the 18% solids can be hauled off.






Utilities - Fresh Water Treatment:

The equipment for cleaning the water can be huge.